The Safe use of Peracetic Acid
1. ® Page 1 of 26 C:\Users\jrobinson.CHEMDAQ2\Dropbox\Industrial\Arti cles, Studies, Research\Summary of Information of t he Safe use of Peracetic Acid May 2014.doc ChemDAQ Inc. • 300 Business Center Drive • Pittsburg h, PA • 15205 phone 412.787.0202 • fax 412.788.2526 Peracetic Acid Information Richard Warburton May 2014 Introduction This report summarizes information on the safe use of peracetic acid in the workplace. Peracetic acid (PAA), alias peroxyacetic acid, is u sed as a disinfectant and sterilant in the food, water treatment and healthcare industries and as an oxidant in pulp and paper. There are currently no OSHA regulations specific to this compound, but there is there an ACGIH TLV of 0.4 ppm, 15 minutes STEL. As a peroxo strong oxidizing agent, it is a primary irritant and studies indicate that it is po tentially harmful to workers exposed to it in the workplace. Table of Contents Basic Information.................................. ................................................... ........................... 2 Summary Health Effects of PAA Exposure: NJ Fact She et ............................................... 2 Exposure Limits for Peracetic Acid ................ ................................................... ................. 3 ACGIH ............................................. ................................................... ............................ 3 EPA Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) ....... ................................................... 4 Solvay ............................................ ................................................... .............................. 4 TERA/Ecolab ....................................... ................................................... ........................ 4 Peracetic Acid Exposure in the Headlines .......... ................................................... ............. 5 PAA Exposure from FDA MAUDE Database .............. ................................................... .. 6 Detection of Peracetic Acid ....................... ................................................... ...................... 8 Continuous Monitor for peracetic acid ............. ................................................... ........... 8 Passive Sampling for Peracetic Acid Vapor ......... ................................................... ....... 8 Laboratory Methods for Liquid Peracetic Acid. ..... ................................................... ..... 9 Inability to Detect PAA by Detecting Hydrogen Perox ide and Acetic Acid .................. 9 Assorted Publications on the Uses of Peracetic Acid .................................................. ..... 10 Scorecard - Chemical Profile for PERACETIC ACID ... .............................................. 11 Primary Literature Related to the Health Effects of Peracetic Acid ................................. 1 1 US Approval of PAA as a Sterilant ................. ................................................... .............. 20 Tabulated Safety Information ...................... ................................................... .................. 20 SDS for PAA........................................ ................................................... ...................... 20 International Chemical Safety Cards ............... ................................................... .......... 20 RTECS Database – Peracetic Acid ................... ................................................... ......... 21 Peroxyacetic acid – IUPAC global availability of in formation on agrochemicals ....... 24
17. ® Page 17 of 26 C:\Users\jrobinson.CHEMDAQ2\Dropbox\Industrial\Arti cles, Studies, Research\Summary of Information of t he Safe use of Peracetic Acid May 2014.doc ChemDAQ Inc. • 300 Business Center Drive • Pittsburg h, PA • 15205 phone 412.787.0202 • fax 412.788.2526 The expiratory bradypnoea indicative of upper airwa y irritation in mice was evaluated during a period of 60 min of oronasal exposure to acetic aci d, hydrogen peroxide and peroxyacetic acid vapours. The airborne concentration resulting in a 50% decrease in the respiratory rate of mice (RD50) was calculated for each chemical. The concen tration–response curves of acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide and peroxyacetic acid had similar slopes. The results did however show that the three chemicals had different irritant potencie s. The RD50 values of acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide and peroxyacetic acid were 227, 113 and 5. 4 p.p.m. respectively. Moreover, a mixture containing 53% acetic acid, 11% hydrogen peroxide a nd 36% peroxyacetic acid had an RD50 of 10.6 ppm, 3.8 ppm being peroxyacetic acid, which is 1.4 times lower than the theoretical value estimated from the fractional concentrations and th e respective RD50s of the individual components. On the basis of a TLV-STEL (threshold l imit value for short-term exposure limit) equal to 0.1 RD50, the TLV-STELs for acetic acid, h ydrogen peroxide and peroxyacetic acid should not exceed 20, 10 and 0.5 p.p.m. respectivel y. On the basis of a TLV-TWA (time-weighted average) equal to 0.03 RD50, the TLV-TWAs for these same chemicals should not exceed 5, 3 and 0.2 p.p.m. respectively. Finally, these values and existing TLVs in Europe and the USA are compared. http://annhyg.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/46/1/9 7.pdf Generation of Controlled Atmospheres for the Determ ination of the Irritant Potency of Peroxyacetic Acid; G. HECHT and M. HÉRY; Ann Occup Hyg (2002) 46 (1): 89-96. Given the physical properties of peroxyacetic acid, which decomposes into acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide, the generation and analysis of c ontrolled atmospheres used to test the irritant potency of this peracid in mice require specific de velopments. The sampling and analytical method was based on the simultaneous sampling on a titanyl sulphate-impregnated silica gel tube (allowing the determination of total peroxides, per oxyacetic acid and hydrogen peroxide) and in an impinger containing a methyl-p-tolyl sulphide solut ion (of which the analysis yields the concentration of total acids, peroxyacetic acid and acetic acid, and peroxyacetic alone). From these results the concentrations of the different product s can be inferred without interference. A special device composed of inert materials was designed for the generation of the controlled atmosphere. Buffering the peroxyacetic solution at pH 7 with a phosphate buffer allowed the generation of peroxyacetic acid atmospheres with negligible conce ntrations of acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide. http://annhyg.oxfordjournals.org/content/46/1/89.sh ort Peracetic Acid (CAS No 79-21-0) and its equilibrium solutions, JACC No. 40, Brussels Jan. 2001. In depth report summarizing the properties of perac etic acid solutions.
12. ® Page 12 of 26 C:\Users\jrobinson.CHEMDAQ2\Dropbox\Industrial\Arti cles, Studies, Research\Summary of Information of t he Safe use of Peracetic Acid May 2014.doc ChemDAQ Inc. • 300 Business Center Drive • Pittsburg h, PA • 15205 phone 412.787.0202 • fax 412.788.2526 safety and environmental quality in workplaces wher e disinfectants are used. During a monitoring campaign in the Regional Hospital of Florence, Ital y, the 8-h average air concentration of PAA was 1/10 of the threshold limit value of time weigh ted average in 87% of the clinical units tested. However, the application of the new SPME method sho wed that short-term exposure to PAA could be relatively elevated in some hospital units with poor ventilation, allowing prompt intervention in order to reduce worker exposure to this potentially toxic compound. Full text available from https://www.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/pdf/IH_48_2_21 7.pdf Irritant vocal cord dysfunction and occupational br onchial asthma: differential diagnosis in a health care worker; Stefano Tonini, Antonio De llabianca, Cristina Costa, Andrea Lanfranco, Fabrizio Scafa, Stefano Candura; International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health . Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 401–406 Objectives: Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) is an unco mmon respiratory disease characterized by the paradoxical adduction of vocal cords during ins piration, that may mimic bronchial asthma. The pathogenesis of VCD has not been clearly defined bu t it is possible to recognize non-psychologic and psychologic causes. The majority of patients ar e female but, interestingly, a high incidence of VCD has been documented in health care workers. A m isdiagnosis with asthma leads to hospitalisation, unnecessary use of systemic steroi ds with related adverse effects, and sometimes tracheostomy and intubation. In a subset of VCD pat ients, the disease can be attributed to occupational or environmental exposure to inhaled i rritants. Materials and Methods: We report the case of a 45-year-old woman, working as a nurse, wh o complained of wheezing, cough, dyspnoea related to inhalation of irritating agents (isoprop ylic alcohol, formaldehyde, peracetic acid). She underwent chest radiography, pulmonary function ass essment both in the presence and in the absence of symptoms, bronchial provocation with met hacholine and bronchodilation test with salbutamol to recognize asthma's features, allergy evaluation by skin prick tests and patch tests and video-laryngoscopy. Results: VCD diagnosis was made on the basis of video-laryngoscopy, that visualized the paradoxical motion of the vocal cords during symptoms, in the absence of other pathologic processes. Conclusions: This case fulfil s the proposed criteria for the diagnosis of irritant VCD (IVCD). This is the first report of VC D onset following exposure to several irritants: formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, isopropylic alcohol, peracetic acid-hydrogen peroxide mixture. These substances are used as cleaning and antisepti c agents in healthcare settings and some ones can also be found in many indoor environments. A co rrect diagnosis is important both to give the appropriate treatment and for medical legal implica tions. http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/ijmh.2009.22.issue- 4/v10001-009-0038- z/v10001-009-0038-z.xml Case Study: Asthma Caused by Peracetic Acid-Hydroge n Peroxide Mixture; Emmanuelle Cristofari-Marquand, Myriam Kacel, Francois Milhe3, Antoine Magnan And Marie- Pascale Lehucher-Michel. J Occup. Health (2007) 49(2), 155-158. Asthma Caused by Peracetic Acid-Hydrogen Peroxide M ixture Thorough preventive measures against potential pati ent infections caused by endoscopic material has become a priority in hospitals and has pushed h ospital care personnel to use increasingly more powerful disinfectant products with much longer con tact periods, which has been responsible for a deterioration in their health. Among chemical disin fectants, formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde were the most widely used for reducing microbial co ntamination responsible for infectious accidents following invasive endoscopies. At presen t, oxidizing agents such as PA-HP, have replaced them but are known to be ineffective for t he prion inactivation cycle and to have toxic effects on patients, nursing staff and the environm ent. PA-HP is officially recommended with respective concentrations of 0.08% and 1% for best sterilization of germs responsible for infections and on biofilm (organic polymer sticking to a surface). Occupational asthma has been
18. ® Page 18 of 26 C:\Users\jrobinson.CHEMDAQ2\Dropbox\Industrial\Arti cles, Studies, Research\Summary of Information of t he Safe use of Peracetic Acid May 2014.doc ChemDAQ Inc. • 300 Business Center Drive • Pittsburg h, PA • 15205 phone 412.787.0202 • fax 412.788.2526 http://members.ecetoc.org/Documents/Document/JACC%2 0040.pdf Atmospheric Monitoring of Peeracetic Acid on the Ex isting Caprolactone Plant Distillation Houses A and B Assessment of Results, McDonagh, J. (1997) Document No. EE970192.M01. Memorandum to R.A Haffington et al fr om J. McDonagh, Solvay Interox, Warrington, UK. Measured the airborne peracetic acid concentrations in two caprolactone distillation plants (PAA is used as part of this production process) over a three hour period. The PAA was measured as total peroxide (i.e. PAA + H 2 O 2 ) , but H2O2 was expected to be a minor component. PAA ranged from 0.5 yo 0.6 ppm and these were not considered i mmediately irritating, but would be unpleasant over an extended time. PAA concentration s of 0.13 to 0.17 ppm were considered tolerable and not unpleasant with no lacrimentation over 3 hours. McDonaugh recommended 0.15 ppm as the 8 hour occupational exposure limit for P AA. This concentration would be perceptible but not irritating or unpleasant. Cited in Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Select ed Airborne Chemicals:, Volume 8, http://www.epa.gov/oppt/aegl/pubs/peracetic_acid_fi nal_volume8_2010.pdf Liquid Chemical Sterilization Using Peracetic Acid: An Alternative Approach to Endoscope Processing; Wallace, C. G.; Agee, P. M.; Demicco, D. D.; ASAIO Journal June 1995 - Volume 41 - Issue 2, 41:151-154. Recurrent episodes of endoscope contamination with nontuberculous mycobacterium and Pseudomonas species, coupled with employee concerns about exposure to 2% glutaraldehyde and the requirement for rapid scope turnover time, led to the investigation of an alternative method for endoscope processing. A prospective evaluation of 2 20 bronchoscopy procedures was carried out. Endoscope culture surveillance was performed twice a month for a 12 month period on all endoscopes. In addition, the deliberate inoculation of bronchoscopes with Mycobacterium gordonae was carried out. No indications of cross c ontamination were noted among the 220
14. ® Page 14 of 26 C:\Users\jrobinson.CHEMDAQ2\Dropbox\Industrial\Arti cles, Studies, Research\Summary of Information of t he Safe use of Peracetic Acid May 2014.doc ChemDAQ Inc. • 300 Business Center Drive • Pittsburg h, PA • 15205 phone 412.787.0202 • fax 412.788.2526 Evaluation of occupational exposure to high-level d isinfectants in endoscopic services in an Italian hospital. Pacenti M, Dugheri S, Boccalon P, Arcangeli G, Cupelli V.; Int J Immunopathol Pharmaco l. 2006 Oct-Dec;19(4 Suppl):73-7. The aim of this study is the evaluation of exposure to airborne, high-level disinfectants to efficiently organize prevention of the risks due to the manipulation of these substances in the endoscopic units in medical facilities. In field an d personal samples in the breathing zone of the workers were taken in 27 endoscopic units in a hosp ital during the replacement of high-level disinfectants in basins, tubes and lavaendoscopes. After a campaign of environmental monitoring of glutaraldehyde in nineteen endoscopic units (176 employees) of the hospital and considering the entity of glutaraldehyde problem, two substitut es, peracetic acid and electrolyzed acid water, have recently been introduced. The level of glutara ldehyde was higher than the TLV-Ceiling in 13 out of 19 working units, while the value of peracet ic acid resulted higher than TLV-TWA in 1 out of 15. EAW has recently been used in two units and the chlorine environmental concentrations resulted lower than the sensibility limit of the me thod (<75 microg/m3). The results obtained during this study of measurements allowed to identi fy those operations which have the highest degree of risk for employees; this serves for takin g suitable measures for prevention and individual protection as well as for evaluating current practi ces and decisional processes in the hospital. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17291411 Peracetic Acid Exposure Assessment During Outbreak of SARS in Tianjin, China Epidemiology ; You, Y; Bai, Z; Yan, L; Gao, X; November 2006 - V olume 17 - Issue 6 - pp S217-S218; ISEE/ISEA 2006 Conference Abstracts S upplement: Session Abstracts. The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) partly broke out in Southern China in December 2002 and spread rapidly almost over the country unt il June 2003. Peracetic acid, an excellent chemical disinfector, was recommended for the publi c disinfection by the Ministry of Health of China. Peracetic acid is a strong skin, eye, and mu cous membrane irritant for both humans and animals, and continued skin exposure may cause live r, kidney, and heart problems. Direct skin contact and exposure to vapors would cause some hea lth problems. A questionnaire survey was carried out among 65 nurses and 182 nonprofessional s related to medicine to collect the information concerning the working and living envir onment, health conditions, frequency and concentration of peracetic acid spraying, time-acti vity patterns, and adverse health effects. Results indicated that most of the 247 participants suffere d from the discomfort of skin, eyes, and respiratory tracts, and cough was the most common s ymptom (43.9% for nonprofessionals and 68.1% for nurses); 72.3% of the nurses suffered fro m skin burn, lacrimation, and/or eye pain as well as cough after the exposure of 8 hours per day in the hospital where 0.5% peracetic acid was sprayed 3 to 5 times a day; 53.8% of common people, who exposed to peracetic acid vapor for 8 to 12 hours per day in the indoor environment where 0. 2% to 0.5% peracetic acid was sprayed 2 or 3 times a day, suffered from skin itch, eye discomfor t, and breathing difficulty. Serious symptoms appeared as skin diseases, injury of eyes, etc. A t otal of 132 participants who didn't have past history of respiratory illnesses appeared one or mo re symptoms when they were in the working environment disinfected by 0.2% to 0.5% peracetic a cid within 10 to 30 minutes. Thirty-one participants' symptoms were more serious due to the ir chronic pharyngitis or respiratory diseases. Concentration variation of peracetic acid sprayed i ndoors was obtained from the simulating measurement conducted in a 20-m3 room. Combining th e simulated concentrations with daily activity pattern, potential dose of nurses working in the indoor environment where peracetic acid was sprayed 5 times a day was estimated as 20.6 mg/ day. Although people will not suffer acute inhalation toxicity when they are exposed in the lo w concentration peracetic acid vapor according to our investigation and relevant reports, and disc omfortable symptoms always disappeared 3 to 5 hours after people left the sprayed area. Proper us e methods should be followed when peracetic acid is widely used in the future to prevent possib le injury. http://journals.lww.com/epidem/Fulltext/2006/11001/ Peracetic_Acid_Exposure_ Assessment_During_Outbreak.555.aspx
3. ® Page 3 of 26 C:\Users\jrobinson.CHEMDAQ2\Dropbox\Industrial\Arti cles, Studies, Research\Summary of Information of t he Safe use of Peracetic Acid May 2014.doc ChemDAQ Inc. • 300 Business Center Drive • Pittsburg h, PA • 15205 phone 412.787.0202 • fax 412.788.2526 * Breathing Peroxyacetic Acid can irritate the lung s causing coughing and/or shortness of breath. Higher exposures can cause a b uild-up of fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema), a medical emergency, with severe shortness of breath. Chronic Health Effects The following chronic (long-term) health effects ca n occur at some time after exposure to Peroxyacetic Acid and can last for mont hs or years: Cancer Hazard * There is limited evidence that Peroxyacetic Acid causes cancer in animals. It may cause cancer of the lungs. * Many scientists believe there is no safe level of exposure to a carcinogen. Such substances may also have the potential for causing reproductive damage in humans. Reproductive Hazard * According to the information presently available to the New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services, Peroxyacetic Acid ha s not been tested for its ability to affect reproduction. Other Long-Term Effects High or repeated exposure may affect the liver and kidneys. http://nj.gov/health/eoh/rtkweb/documents/fs/1482.p df The probable human oral lethal dose is 50 to 500 mg /kg, or between 1 teasoon and 1 oz for a 150 lb person. 4 Exposure Limits for Peracetic Acid ACGIH The ACGIH issued a threshold limit value of 0.4 ppm peracetic acid calculated as a 15 minute time weighted average in the spring of 2014. 5 The ACGIH based its decision on the following data points summarized from ACGIH data sheets for PAA. 4 Sittig’s handbook of Pesticides and Agricultural Chemicals, by Stanley A. Greene. 5 2014 Guide to Occupational Exposure Values, ACGIH .
9. ® Page 9 of 26 C:\Users\jrobinson.CHEMDAQ2\Dropbox\Industrial\Arti cles, Studies, Research\Summary of Information of t he Safe use of Peracetic Acid May 2014.doc ChemDAQ Inc. • 300 Business Center Drive • Pittsburg h, PA • 15205 phone 412.787.0202 • fax 412.788.2526 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3604342 Passive sampling of airborne peroxyacetic acid. Anal Chem. 2006 Sep 15;78(18):6547-55. Henneken H, Assink L, de Wit J, Vogel M, Karst U. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16970333 Laboratory Methods for Liquid Peracetic Acid . In addition there are many laboratory methods for t he determination of peracetic acid in a mixture such as the two methods shown below: Hydrogen peroxide content (and peracid as peroxyace tic acid) is determined by an oxidation- reduction titration with ceric sulfate. After the e ndpoint of this titration has been reached, an excess of potassium iodide is added to the solution . The potassium iodide reacts with peroxyacids to liberate iodine, which is titrated with a standa rd solution of sodium thiosulfate. ftp://ftp.fao.org/es/esn/jecfa/cta/CTA_63_Antimicro bials.pdf Analytical Method: Peracetic Acid and Hydrogen Pero xide Assay for 5% Peracetic Acid. Hydrogen peroxide is titrated with ceric sulfate. The peracetic acid is then determined iodometrically. LaMotte Com pany, Box 329, Chestertown, MD 21620. http://www.microbialcontrol.fmc.com/Portals/Microbi al/Content/Docs/PAA%20 Analytical%20Method.pdf Inability to Detect PAA by Detecting Hydrogen Perox ide and Acetic Acid Some industrial hygienists have tried to determine if peracetic acid vapor concentrations were hazardous by using gas detector tubes for hydr ogen peroxide and acetic acid. Based on the construction of the tubes, the acetic acid t ube is unlikely to give any response to peracetic acid vapor and the hydrogen peroxide tube may be prone to loss of PAA through absorption and so the response is uncalibra ted. Even if there is a response to PAA it is impossible to distinguish it from hydroge n peroxide even though the former is a stronger oxidant and so more hazardous. Therefore u sing acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide detector tubes to determine the PAA concen tration is not a valid method. Some industrial hygienists, on being called into a facility that uses PAA in response to employee complaints of stinging eyes, sore throats, respirat ory problems and loss of voice, lacking a method for PAA, would measure the concentration of acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide with detector tubes and declare that if these two species were wi thin there limits then the PAA concentration must also be within safe limits too. This argument is of course fallacious for several r easons. 1) Using Draeger tubes as an example, the detector tube for acetic acid is intended to measure acetic acid over the range 5 to 80 ppm. If we wanted to detect PAA around 0.4 ppm (the ACGIH TLV STEL value), it would not even s how up on the scale.
19. ® Page 19 of 26 C:\Users\jrobinson.CHEMDAQ2\Dropbox\Industrial\Arti cles, Studies, Research\Summary of Information of t he Safe use of Peracetic Acid May 2014.doc ChemDAQ Inc. • 300 Business Center Drive • Pittsburg h, PA • 15205 phone 412.787.0202 • fax 412.788.2526 bronchoscopy procedures after processing the scopes by the studied liquid chemical sterilization system using peracetic acid. Ongoing patient survei llance did not reveal any indications of cross contamination for nearly 15,000 patient diagnostic or surgical endoscopic procedures using instruments processed by this liquid chemical steri lization system. Twice a month for 12 months, bronchoscopes, colonoscopes, and gastroscopes were cultured for bacterium, fungi, and acid fast bacilli and showed no growth. Deliberate inoculatio n of bronchoscopes with M. gordonae showed the scopes were rendered sterile. No unusual occurr ences of occupational chemical exposure were found in 11 individuals working with this liquid ch emical sterilization system. The peracetic acid based sterilization system studied proved to be an effective, safe, and economical alternative to the glutaraldehyde method. http://journals.lww.com/asaiojournal/Abstract/1995/ 06000/Liquid_Chemical_Ster ilization_Using_Peracetic.5.aspx Fogging Trials with Tenneco Organics Ltd, (30 June 1986) at Collards farm; J.A.L. Fraser and A. Thorbinson (1986) Solvay Interox, War rington, UK. Fraser and Thorbinson conducted fogging studies in chicken houses using a 5% PAA blend to determine the atmospheric concentrations of peracet ic acid/hydrogen peroxide at different distances from the fogger. Lacrimation was reported at 5 ppm, extreme discomfort at concentrations > 2.5 ppm and 2.0 ppm was considered unbearable in one instance and tolerable for 2 min in another. As the concentration fell from 2 ppm to < 0.5 ppm the physiological responses decreased from extreme discomfort of mucous membran e to mild discomfort at 0.5 to 1.0 ppm to no discomfort at < 0.5 ppm. No irritation to the ch est occurred at anytime during this test. Fraser and Thorbinson report described in Acute Exp osure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals:, Volume 8. http://www.epa.gov/oppt/aegl/pubs/peracetic_acid_fi nal_volume8_2010.pdf Mode of Action of Peracetic Acid Aerosols and Effec ts on Animal Organism. Heinze, W Werner, E, Fischer, R Monatshefte fuer Veterinaermedizin [MONATSH. VETERINARMED.] . Vol. 36, no. 9, pp. 343-349. 1981. The effects of 0.39 per cent, 1.56 per cent, and 6. 25 per cent Wofasteril 24 ultrasound aerosol (0.15, 0.6, and 2.5 per cent peracetic acid) on eleven gro ups of 440 female mice were studied, with reference being made to earlier experiments. The ae rosols were allowed to act upon the animals five, ten, and 15 minutes a day over 29 days. Signi ficant differences, not depending on time of exposure, were recordable only from the groups with highest aerosol concentration. Included in those differences were rise in both erythrocyte cou nt and total haemoglobin by 67 or 54 per cent on average and rise in average haemoglobin levels i n the individual erythrocytes by 27 per cent on average. Erythrocyte dimensions dropped by 23 per c ent, and relative crythrocyte suface increased by 13 per cent. The stab-nuclear and eosinophile gr anulocytes as well as the monocytes were also increased with significance throughout the experime ntal period. Significant deline in weight was recorded from animals with longest exposure. Those changes were attributed primarily to damage to the pulmonary tissue by peracetic acid, containe d in Wofasteril aerosol. Peracetic acid was found to cause continuous deterioration of the rati o of oxygen to carbon dioxide in blood and tissue, and the consequence was compensatory rise i n both oxygen transport and exchange capacity. http://md1.csa.com/partners/viewrecord.php?requeste r=gs&collection=ENV&reci d=184452&q=peracetic+exposure&uid=788901738&setcook ie=yes 24 Wofasteril® E 400, 40 % Peracetic Acid for the Fo od and Farming Industries. http://www.vdbsrv.de/viomatrix/843/imgs/e_400engl.p df
24. ® Page 24 of 26 C:\Users\jrobinson.CHEMDAQ2\Dropbox\Industrial\Arti cles, Studies, Research\Summary of Information of t he Safe use of Peracetic Acid May 2014.doc ChemDAQ Inc. • 300 Business Center Drive • Pittsburg h, PA • 15205 phone 412.787.0202 • fax 412.788.2526 Used as polymerization initiator, curing agent and cross-linking agent EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUAR Y 2001 REFERENCES: CODEN REFERENCE BSPII* SPI Bulletin. (Soc. of the Plastics Industry , 250 Park Ave., New York, NY 10017) FEREAC Federal Register. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) V.1- 1936- GISAAA Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1936- JNCIAM Journal of the National Cancer Institute. (Washingt on, DC) V.1-60, 1940-78. For publisher information, see JJIND8. MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964- MUTAEX Mutagenesis. (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, S outhfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 1986- RBREV* Status of Pesticides in Registration, Reregistratio n, and Special Review (Rainbow Report), Special Review and Reregistration Division Office o f Pesticide Programs U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 401 M. Street, S.W ., Washington, D.C. 20460, Spring 1998 UCDS** Union Carbide Data Sheet. (Union Carbide Corp., 39 Old Ridgebury Rd., Danbury, CT 06817) WZHMAE Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Humboldt-Universi taet zu Berlin, Mathematisch- Naturwissenschaftliche Reihe. (DDR-1004 Berlin, Str asse der Pariser Kommune 3/4, zu richten) V.1-36, 1951/52-87. YHTPAD Yaoxue Tongbao. Bulletin of Pharmacology. (China In ternational Book Trading Corp., POB 2820, Beijing, Peop. Rep. China) V.13-23, 1978-88. For publisher information, see ZYZAEU. Used as polymerization initiator, curing agent and cross-linking agent NIOSH PROFILE (PERACETIC ACID), PRAB, 6/80 NIOSH PROFILE (PEROXIDES, ORGANIC), SRC, 12/79 RTECS Compound Description: Agricultural Chemical Tumorigen Mutagen Primary Irritant Peroxyacetic acid – IUPAC global availability of in formation on agrochemicals
16. ® Page 16 of 26 C:\Users\jrobinson.CHEMDAQ2\Dropbox\Industrial\Arti cles, Studies, Research\Summary of Information of t he Safe use of Peracetic Acid May 2014.doc ChemDAQ Inc. • 300 Business Center Drive • Pittsburg h, PA • 15205 phone 412.787.0202 • fax 412.788.2526 assay and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain D7 (mi totic gene conversion, point mutation and mitochondrial DNA mutability, with and without endo genous metabolic activation) and to compare their effects with those of peracetic acid, proposed as an alternative disinfectant. All three disinfectants are weakly genotoxic in human leukocy tes (lowest effective dose 0.2 p.p.m. for chlorine dioxide, 0.5 p.p.m. for sodium hypochlorit e and peracetic acid). The results in S.cerevisiae show a genotoxic response on the end ‐ points considered with an effect only at doses higher (5 ‐ to 10 ‐ fold) than the concentration normally used for wate r disinfection; sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid are able to induce genotoxic effects without endogenous metabolic activation (in stationary phase cells) whereas chlo rine dioxide is effective in growing cells. The Comet assay was more sensitive than the yeast tests , with effective doses in the range normally used for water disinfection processes. The biologic al effectiveness of the three disinfectants on S.cerevisiae proved to be strictly dependent on cel l ‐ specific physiological/biochemical conditions. All the compounds appear to act on the DNA and pera cetic acid shows effectiveness similar to sodium hypochlorite and chlorine dioxide. http://mutage.oxfordjournals.org/content/19/2/157.s hort Evaluating Occupational Health Risks Associated Wit h Substitution Of High-Level Disinfectants In Hospitals; Karen L. Rideout; MS Th esis, The University Of British Columbia, April 2003 Glutaraldehyde, a chemical associated with respirat ory illness, has been used for high-level disinfection in hospitals for 40 years. Two substitutes have recently been introduced— ortho-phthalaldehyde and a mixture of hydrogen pero xide and peracetic acid—despite limited health effects information about the products. This project used a two-tiered approach to evaluate the risks associated with substitution of high-leve l disinfectants. It involved predicting the relativ e toxic effects of all the products and assessing the current practices regarding the use of high-level disinfectants in British Columbia hospitals. Relative potential toxicities were examined based o n regulatory data, a review of the published literature, and a qualitative structure–activity re lationship analysis. .... Although little epidemiological data was available for hydrogen per oxide or peracetic acid, structure–activity analysis results suggest little risk of sensitizati on. Current practices in industry were assessed using a comprehensive survey of current practices and decision processes in all hospitals in British Colu mbia. Of 95 hospitals, 64 returned surveys; 80% of these used high-level disinfection. Among user h ospitals, 49% used glutaraldehyde only and 51% had introduced alternatives. Concern about empl oyee health was the most common reason for substituting but was frequently not considered when choosing specific alternatives. Although occupational health and safety staff were available to 67% of user hospitals, they were involved in the decision process about the use of chemical high -level disinfectants in only 41%. Hospitals that involved occupational health, infection control, or regional staff in high-level disinfectant decisions used glutaraldehyde alternatives less fre quently. In most hospitals it was difficult to find any one person knowledgeable about the use of disin fectants at the site. Despite the fact that little is known about the ris ks to employees from glutaraldehyde alternatives, their use is widespread. The potential risks of all high-level disinfectants are serious; thus, regulators are faced with important risk management decisions not only before introducing new chemicals, but also after they have been introduced into the workplace. http://www.cher.ubc.ca/PDFs/hospdisinfectantsfull.p df Sensory irritation of acetic acid, hydrogen peroxid e, peroxyacetic acid and their mixture in mice. Gagnaire F, Marignac B, Hecht G et al. Ann Occup Hyg ; 46: 97–102, (2002)
13. ® Page 13 of 26 C:\Users\jrobinson.CHEMDAQ2\Dropbox\Industrial\Arti cles, Studies, Research\Summary of Information of t he Safe use of Peracetic Acid May 2014.doc ChemDAQ Inc. • 300 Business Center Drive • Pittsburg h, PA • 15205 phone 412.787.0202 • fax 412.788.2526 documented in nurses exposed to solvents such as fo rmaldehyde but has not yet been described in workers exposed to PA-HP. We report the cases of tw o subjects who developed cough, wheezing and shortness of breath after being exposed to PA-H P vapors. http://joh.med.uoeh-u.ac.jp/pdf/E49/E49_2_11.pdf ; http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/joh/49/2/155/_p df Occupational exposure evaluation in some endoscopic services of Campania region sanitary structures. d'Angelo R, Russo E, Attaianes e L, Niutta F., Contarp, INAIL, Direzione Regionale per la Campania; G Ital Med Lav Ergon. 2007 Jul-Sep;29(3 Suppl):747-8. Article in Italian] Peroxyacetic acid is an organic peroxide characteri zed by an elevated oxidative power, a remarkable biocide effectiveness (higher than the g lutaraldehyde) and it can result cold germicidal at concentrations down to the 0.2%, too. In these l ast years, its use has been introduced in the sanitary sector in glutaraldehyde substitution (GTA ), for the endoscopic material disinfection. The goal of this study has been to determine the aerodi sperse peroxyacetic acid (APA) concentrations released by APA daily employment in endoscopic surg ery operating rooms and sanitary endoscopy sections, related to some Campania region structures. A thirty samplings collection has been performed in "fixed posting", 15 measures in p roximity of the "basins" and other 15 samplings in the closeness of the "automatic endosc ope washer-disinfectors", to appraise the environmental pollution level during the whole work ing turn. Besides, 18 personal dosimetries have been effected in the APA solutions activation and decanting phases (load and unloading) employees: six "automatic endoscope washer-disinfec tors" evaluations and twelve "basins" measures, for all through the operation (around 15- 20 minutes). Air monitoring was performed by using vials containing alkaline silica gels with me thyl p-tolylsulfoxide (MTSO) (1 l/min) and subsequently analysis by high performance liquid ch romatography techniques (HPLC) equipped with a UV detector. The environmental investigation s have underlined that APA average values result inferior to the specific TLV-TWA (around 1/1 0) and it reaches the same conclusion in comparison with TLV-STEL (around 1/4). Besides, the APA exposure founded in all the examined structures results smaller in comparison t o the previously glutaraldehyde evaluation. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18409938 Experimental Study of Adverse Effects of Peracetic Acid Used as an Air Disinfectant on Exposed People; Zhou, Xiao-tao, Fan, LI-Rui, Tang, Fei; Journal of Environment and Health . Vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 228-230. May 2006 To evaluate the potential adverse effects of perace tic acid on exposed people when it was largely used as an air disinfectant in the public area. 29 volunteers (14 males, 15 females) were enrolled to take part in the experiment. The indoor areas were disinfected with peracetic acid according to the Guideline to Control the Hospital Infection During the SARS Period issued by the Ministry of Health. 4 ml blood were collected from the voluntee rs to determine the blood routine indexes, liver function, kidney function and histamine befor e peracetic acid exposure, after 1-2 days of the exposure and one week after exposure. A questionnai re about the subjective adverse effects was required to be filled in after exposures. All the v olunteers felt, to different extent, uncomfortable after exposed the disinfected air, the white blood cells and monocytes increased (P < 0.05), that demonstrated a potential inflammation. One week aft er the exposure, all the changed indexes recovered to the levels before exposure except the monocytes. If the indoor disinfection with peracetic acid is conducted according to that estab lished guideline, some uncomfortable symptoms and decrease of monocytes and WBC will occurs, one week after exposed, however, all the changed indexes will recover except the monocytes, that means such impairments are reversible . http://md1.csa.com/partners/viewrecord.php?requeste r=gs&collection=TRD&reci d=07086962EN&q=peracetic+exposure&uid=788901738&set cookie=yes
8. ® Page 8 of 26 C:\Users\jrobinson.CHEMDAQ2\Dropbox\Industrial\Arti cles, Studies, Research\Summary of Information of t he Safe use of Peracetic Acid May 2014.doc ChemDAQ Inc. • 300 Business Center Drive • Pittsburg h, PA • 15205 phone 412.787.0202 • fax 412.788.2526 Detection of Peracetic Acid Continuous Monitor for Peracetic Acid Vapor ChemDAQ Steri-Trac ® monitor for peracetic acid Sensor Type Electrochemical Range: 0 – 6 ppm Resolution: 0.01 ppm Temp. Range: -20 to +50 o C http://www.chemdaq.com/products/steri-trac-area-mon itors/steri-trac-peracetic- acid-area-monitor/ Passive Sampling for Peracetic Acid Vapor Simultaneous sampling of peroxyacetic acid and hydr ogen peroxide in workplace atmospheres; HECHT G.; HERY M.; HUBERT G.; SUBRA I. ; Annals of occupational hygiene; 2004, vol. 48, no8, pp. 715-7 21. http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=162915 62 ; http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/oup/annhyg/20 04/00000048/00000008/ar t00715 Note: This method is commercial available from SKC http://www.skcinc.com/osha-niosh/methods.asp?IDNumb er=2068 Obviously a passive method for detection of any gas will not provide any warning of a leak or give any information on how the gas co ncentration is changing over time as a continuous monitor will. Non-commercial Methods for Measuring PAA Vapor Conc entrations European Chemical Industry Council http://www.cefic.org/Files/Publications/PAA%20analy tical%20method.pdf Z Gesamte Hyg. 1987 Apr;33(4):209-11. [A photometric method for determining the concentra tions of peracetic acid in indoor air and results of studies concerning the ri sk of occupational exposure] [Article in German] Bretschneider K, John D.
11. ® Page 11 of 26 C:\Users\jrobinson.CHEMDAQ2\Dropbox\Industrial\Arti cles, Studies, Research\Summary of Information of t he Safe use of Peracetic Acid May 2014.doc ChemDAQ Inc. • 300 Business Center Drive • Pittsburg h, PA • 15205 phone 412.787.0202 • fax 412.788.2526 Suitability of Peracetic Acid for Sterilization of Media for Mycoplasma Cultures; P. WUTZLER,* M. SPROSSIG, AND H. PETERSEIM, JOURNAL OF CLINICAI MICROBIOLOGY. Mar. 1975, 1(3), 246-249. http://jcm.asm.org/cgi/reprint/1/3/246.pdf Peracetic Acid In The Disinfection Of A Hospital Wa ter System Contaminated With Legionella Species; Savina Ditommaso; Cinzia Biasin ; Monica Giacomuzzi; Carla Maria Zotti; Alberto Cavanna; Angela Ruggenin i Moiraghi; Infection Control And Hospital Epidemiology May 2005, p 490. http://www.contatti.com.br/CME/Sterilife/PERACETIC_ ACID_IN_THE_DISIN FECTION.pdf Use of peracetic acid to sterilise human donor skin for production of tissue engineered skin matrices for clinical use, Septembe r 2003 Q.Huang, R. Dawson, D. Pegg, J. Kearney, S. Mac Nei l; European Cells and Materials Vol. 6. Suppl. 2, 2003, p4. http://www.ecmjournal.org/journal/supplements/vol00 6supp02/pdf/oral_004_Hua ng.pdf Sporicidal Effect of Peracetic Acid Vapor, Dorothy M. Portner And Robert K. Hoffman; Applied Micromology, Nov. 1968, 16(11), p. 1782-178 5 http://aem.asm.org/cgi/reprint/16/11/1782.pdf Kraft Pulp Bleaching with Hydrogen Peroxide and Per acetic Acid* F. POTÙÈEK** and M. MILICHOVSKÝ; Chem. Papers 54(6a ), 406 -411 (2000), http://www.chempap.org/papers/546aa406.pdf Scorecard - Chemical Profile for PERACETIC ACID (CA S Number: 79-21-0) This is a high volume chemical with production exce eding 1 million pounds annually in the U.S. http://scorecard.org/chemical-profiles/summary.tcl? edf_substance_id=79-21- 0#hazards Primary Literature Related to the Health Effects of Peracetic Acid Air monitoring and assessment of occupational expos ure to peracetic acid in a hospital environment. Pacenti M1, Dugheri S, Boccalon P, Arc angeli G, Dolara P, Cupelli V; Ind Health . 2010;48(2):217-21. A new automated method based upon solid phase micro -extraction (SPME)/fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was develo ped for the quantitative determination of airborne peracetic acid (PAA). The method is suitab le for the quick assessment of brief acute exposure as well as for long-term environmental mon itoring of PAA and can assist in improving
26. ® Page 26 of 26 C:\Users\jrobinson.CHEMDAQ2\Dropbox\Industrial\Arti cles, Studies, Research\Summary of Information of t he Safe use of Peracetic Acid May 2014.doc ChemDAQ Inc. • 300 Business Center Drive • Pittsburg h, PA • 15205 phone 412.787.0202 • fax 412.788.2526 Carcino gen Endocri ne disrupt er Reproduct ion / developme nt effects Acetyl cholinester ase inhibitor Neurotoxic ant Respirat ory tract irritant Skin irrita nt Eye irrita nt - - - General human health issues [May cause severe gastrointestinal tract irritation and renal failure], [Vapours may cause dizziness] Handling issues [Unstable - may explode on heating] , [Caustic and corrosive] : Yes, known to cause a problem http://sitem.herts.ac.uk/aeru/iupac/1466.htm
15. ® Page 15 of 26 C:\Users\jrobinson.CHEMDAQ2\Dropbox\Industrial\Arti cles, Studies, Research\Summary of Information of t he Safe use of Peracetic Acid May 2014.doc ChemDAQ Inc. • 300 Business Center Drive • Pittsburg h, PA • 15205 phone 412.787.0202 • fax 412.788.2526 Evaluation of Worker Exposures to Peracetic Acid-Ba sed Sterilant during Endoscope Reprocessing; D. Sylvain, J. Gibbins The Health Hazard Evaluation (HHE) Program evaluate d hospital employees' exposure to an enzymatic cleaner and a sterilant used to clean and sterilize endoscopes. Investigators found that air samples did not contain detectable concentratio ns of acetic acid; concentrations of peracetic acid were thought to be low but could not be measur ed. Investigators recommended increased ventilation in the sterilization room and use of ap propriate PPE to prevent eye, face, hand, arm, and body contact with concentrated peracetic acid a nd contaminated equipment. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/hhe/reports/pdfs/2006-0298 -3090.pdf Considering risks to healthcare workers from glutar aldehyde alternatives in high-level disinfection. Rideout K, Teschke K, Dimich-Ward H, Kennedy SM., J Hosp Infect . 2005 Jan; 59(1):4-11. Due to concerns over glutaraldehyde's toxicity, two substitutes have recently been introduced; ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA), and a mixture of hydrog en peroxide and peracetic acid. There is limited information about the health effects for em ployees from these products. This study assesses the current practices regarding the use of high-level disinfectants in British Columbian hospitals and predicts the relative toxicities of e ach product. Industry practices were compiled using a comprehensive survey of current practices a nd decision processes in all hospitals in British Columbia. Of 95 hospitals, 64 returned surveys; 80% of these used high-level disinfection. Among user hospitals, 49% used glutaraldehyde alone and 5 1% had introduced alternatives. Concern about staff health was the most common reason for s ubstituting, but this was frequently not considered when choosing specific alternatives. Hos pitals that involved occupational health, infection control or regional staff in high-level d isinfectant decisions used glutaraldehyde alternatives less often. In most hospitals, it was difficult to find individuals who were knowledgeable about the use of disinfectants. Poten tial health effects associated with each type of high-level disinfectant were assessed by review of the published literature and available manufacturers' data along with qualitative structur e-activity relationship analysis. Results indicated that although all products irritate the s kin and respiratory tract, OPA is a potential derma l and respiratory sensitizer but hydrogen peroxide an d peracetic acid do not cause allergic reactions. Despite little being known about the risks to emplo yees from glutaraldehyde alternatives, their use is widespread. The potential risks of all high-leve l disinfectants are serious; thus regulators and users are faced with important risk management deci sions before and after they have been introduced into the workplace. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15571847?ordinal pos=1&itool=EntrezSyst em2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_Singl eItemSupl.Pubmed_D iscovery_RA&linkpos=2&log$=relatedarticles&logdbfro m=pubmed Sodium hypochlorite ‐ , chlorine dioxide ‐ and peracetic acid ‐ induced genotoxicity detected by the Comet assay and Saccharomyces cerev isiae D7 tests; Annamaria Buschini, Pamela Carboni, Mariangela Furlini, Paola Poli1 and Carlo Rossi; Mutagenesis (2004), Volume 19, Issue 2Pp. 157-162. Mutagenicity of drinking water is due not only to i ndustrial, agricultural and urban pollution but also to chlorine disinfection by ‐ products. Furthermore, residual disinfection is use d to provide a partial safeguard against low level contamination a nd bacterial re ‐ growth within the distribution system. The aims of this study were to further eval uate the genotoxic potential of the world wide used disinfectants sodium hypochlorite and chlorine dioxide in human leukocytes by the Comet
20. ® Page 20 of 26 C:\Users\jrobinson.CHEMDAQ2\Dropbox\Industrial\Arti cles, Studies, Research\Summary of Information of t he Safe use of Peracetic Acid May 2014.doc ChemDAQ Inc. • 300 Business Center Drive • Pittsburg h, PA • 15205 phone 412.787.0202 • fax 412.788.2526 Pathologico-anatomical and histological studies wit h special reference to the tracheal mucus membrane of calves following exposure to an a erosol disinfectant; Wesemeier H, Kühn M, Steiger A.; WofasterilArch Exp Veterinarmed . 1981;35(1):31-8; [Article in German], Various morphological methods were used in examinin g calves, with the view to determining the action of Wofasteril, an aerosolic disinfectant, on their organism, particularly on their trachea. Calves were found to differ from animals with pneum onia and other pulmonary inflammations, in that no transformation and quality change occurred to the mucus of their tracheal goblet cells in response to peracetic acid. Pathologico-anatomic an d histological alterations in various organs were not attributable either to the disinfectant. A contribution is made to a more general description of the normal tissue structure, in that data are presented on the length, width, and number of goblet cells in the trachea of calf. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7224790 US Approval of PAA as a sterilant US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pest icide Programs, List A: EPA’s Registered Antimicrobial Products Registered with the EPA as Sterilizers, January 9, 2009. http://www.epa.gov/oppad001/list_a_sterilizer.pdf EPA approved as a pesticide 40 CFR 152.25 (a) EPA #63838-1 FDA approved for direct food contact 21 CFR 173.315 (fruits, vegetables) 21 CFR 173.370 (meat, poultry, seafood) FDA approved as sanitizer on food contact surfaces 21 CFR 178.1010 Approval for use in Canada http://dsp-psd.pwgsc.gc.ca/Collection/H113-6-2001-5 E.pdf Tabulated Safety Information SDS for PAA http://www.melrosechem.com/english/msd_eng/hs2560.p df http://www.jmcvr.com/pdf%20files/HDH%20Peroxy%20MSD S.pdf http://www.madchem.com/MSDS/Oxywave.pdf http://www.kochmembrane.com/pdf/msds/MSDS_- _KOCHKLEENR_OX_SANITANT.pdf International Chemical Safety Cards PERACETIC ACID (stabilized) ICSC: 1031 TYPES OF HAZARD/ EXPOSURE ACUTE HAZARDS/ SYMPTOMS PREVENTION FIRST AID/ FIRE FIGHTING EXPOSURE AVOID ALL CONTACT! •INHALATION Burning sensation. Cough. Ventilation, local exhaust, or Fresh air, rest. Half-upright
23. ® Page 23 of 26 C:\Users\jrobinson.CHEMDAQ2\Dropbox\Industrial\Arti cles, Studies, Research\Summary of Information of t he Safe use of Peracetic Acid May 2014.doc ChemDAQ Inc. • 300 Business Center Drive • Pittsburg h, PA • 15205 phone 412.787.0202 • fax 412.788.2526 changes Liver: Other changes Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes REVIEWS: ORGANIZATION STANDARD REFERENCE N/R N/R N/R STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS: ORGANIZATION STANDARD REFERENCE Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE- REGISTRATION FEREAC 54,7740,1989 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1998 STATUS OF PESTICIDES: RED Completed RBREV* -,331,1998 NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE: ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY REFERENCE National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Co de: 84020; Number of Industries 1; Total Number of Facilities 33; Number of Occupations 2; Total Number of Employees Exposed 1,683 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 84020 ; Number of Industries 2; Total Number of Facilities 31; Number of Occupations 4; Total Number of Employees Exposed 1,728; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 91 STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES: ORGANIZATION REFERENCE EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
10. ® Page 10 of 26 C:\Users\jrobinson.CHEMDAQ2\Dropbox\Industrial\Arti cles, Studies, Research\Summary of Information of t he Safe use of Peracetic Acid May 2014.doc ChemDAQ Inc. • 300 Business Center Drive • Pittsburg h, PA • 15205 phone 412.787.0202 • fax 412.788.2526 2) Additionally, this detector tube contains a pH indicator which turns color with acetic acid. 21 However, acetic acid is a much stronger acid than PAA as indicated by the lower pK a value. The pK a for acetic acid is 4.76 and for 8.20 for peracetic acid. 22 Since the pK a s are so far apart, it is unlikely that the indicat or used for acetic acid would respond to PAA. Therefore the acetic acid tube does not even r espond to PAA. 3) The Draeger tube for hydrogen peroxide 23 is for 0.1 to 3 ppm hydrogen peroxide. This tube is based on a color change with potassium iodi de, which will response to almost any oxidizing agent, and so would probably give a respo nse with PAA. If we wanted to measure 0.2 ppm PAA, it would be on the scale of th is tube. However, as discussed above, the PAA is used in an equilibrium mixture wi th acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide and so there will always be some hydrogen peroxide present. If the tube gave a reading of 0.8 ppm, there is no way of determining if this is safe (no PAA, 0.8 ppm H 2 O 2 which is below the OSHA PEL for H 2 O 2 of 1 ppm), or if this hazardous (0.8 ppm PAA, no H 2 O 2 , twice the ACGIH TLV STEL for PAA). There are many b lends of PAA, some with a high PAA/H 2 O 2 ratio and others with a low PAA/H 2 O 2 ratio and so whether a reading on the Draeger tube is significant or not would depend on the blend of PAA being used. 4) PAA absorbs much more readily on many porous surfac es than hydrogen peroxide including on glass, silica, alumina and many cerami cs. The gas path into the Draeger tube for hydrogen peroxide comprises the glass tube, the n a beige disk with small holes in it (looks like an unglazed ceramic), and then the whit e crystalline silica that is treated with KI. Without testing that these materials do not abs orb PAA, it would be reckless to assume that all the PAA drawn into the tube ends up making a color stain with the same calibration function as hydrogen peroxide. Another more complex argument has been made that si nce PAA is formed as an equilibrium mixture with hydrogen peroxide and acetic acid (see above) then if one knew the vapor concentration of acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide, one could calculate the concentration of PAA. The argument assumes that the vapor concentration i s proportional to the mole fraction of the solution and the vapor pressure of that component a nd so vapor concentration of the three components is a fixed ratio, albeit different from the solution ratio. The problem with this approach is that in most plants, with air exchanges etc. the system is not at steady state, the vapor concentrations are not at the equilibrium vapor con centrations and so these calculations, though elegant, often do not work in practice. Assorted Publications on the Uses of Peracetic Acid Hydrogen Peroxide, Peroxyacetic Acid, Octanoic Acid , Peroxyoctanoic Acid, And 1- Hydroxyethylidene-1,1-Diphosphonic Acid (Hedp) As C omponents Of Antimicrobial Washing Solution, Chemical And Technical Assessment (CTA) Prepared by Ma. Patricia V. Azanza; © FAO 2004 ftp://ftp.fao.org/es/esn/jecfa/cta/CTA_63_Antimicro bials.pdf PAA use in the Food industry http://www.envirotech.com/pdf/PAA%20in%20Sanitation %20(236k).pdf 21 Draeger tube 6722101, 5 – 80 ppm, Draeger Tube ha ndbook, Published by National Draeger Inc. (now Draeger Safety) 1992 22 Lange’s Handbook of Chemistry, 12 th Ed. 23 Draeger tube 8101041
2. ® Page 2 of 26 C:\Users\jrobinson.CHEMDAQ2\Dropbox\Industrial\Arti cles, Studies, Research\Summary of Information of t he Safe use of Peracetic Acid May 2014.doc ChemDAQ Inc. • 300 Business Center Drive • Pittsburg h, PA • 15205 phone 412.787.0202 • fax 412.788.2526 Basic Information on Peracetic Acid Names: Peracetic acid; Peroxyacetic acid; Ethaneper oxoic acid; Acetyl hydroperoxide Formula: C 2 H 4 O 3 / CH 3 COOOH Molecular mass: 76.1 g/mol ICSC # 1031; CAS # 79-21-0; RTECS # SD875000 0; UN # 3105; EC # 607-094-00-8 Peracetic acid (AcOOH) is formed as an equilibrium mixture with acetic acid (AcOH) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). AcOH + H 2 O 2 AcOOH + H 2 O PAA is a weak acid, pK a = 8.20 at 25 o C 1 The odor threshold for PAA is 50 ppm (Solvay) 2 Summary Health Effects of PAA Exposure NJ Dept of Health and Senior Services, Hazardous Su bstance Fact Sheet 3 HAZARD SUMMARY * Peroxyacetic Acid can affect you when breathed in . * Peroxyacetic Acid is a HIGHLY CORROSIVE CHEMICAL and contact can severely irritate and burn the skin and eyes leadin g to eye damage. * Breathing Peroxyacetic Acid can irritate the nose and throat. * Breathing Peroxyacetic Acid can irritate the lung s causing coughing and/or shortness of breath. Higher exposures can cause a b uild-up of fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema), a medical emergency, with severe shortness of breath. * High or repeated exposure may affect the liver an d kidneys. * Peroxyacetic Acid is a HIGHLY REACTIVE CHEMICAL a nd a DANGEROUS EXPLOSION HAZARD. ... HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION Acute Health Effects The following acute (short-term) health effects may occur immediately or shortly after exposure to Peroxyacetic Acid: * Contact can severely irritate and burn the skin a nd eyes leading to eye damage. * Breathing Peroxyacetic Acid can irritate the nose and throat. 1 Lange’s Handbook of Chemistry, 12 th Ed. 2 http://www.solvaychemicals.us/EN/News/Documents/new sletters/20101201_PAA-Solutions.pdf , retrieved 5/23/14 3 http://nj.gov/health/eoh/rtkweb/documents/fs/1482 .pdf, retrieved 5/13/2014
6. ® Page 6 of 26 C:\Users\jrobinson.CHEMDAQ2\Dropbox\Industrial\Arti cles, Studies, Research\Summary of Information of t he Safe use of Peracetic Acid May 2014.doc ChemDAQ Inc. • 300 Business Center Drive • Pittsburg h, PA • 15205 phone 412.787.0202 • fax 412.788.2526 • Sept 2008: Thirty workers at a seafood processing p lant in Abrams Village, Prince Edward Island, were taken to hospital after being exposed to high levels of PAA. http://www.ohscanada.com/news/chemical-release-clea rs- processing-plant/1000228388/?& • May 2006: Cape Cod Ambulatory Surger Laser Center e vacuated after release of PAA fumes from punctured box. http://www.capecodonline.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article? AID=/20060517/NEWS 01/305179991&template=printart • March 2006: mishandling of PAA at Boston Medical Ce nter forced the evacuation of about 150 people from two of the cent er's buildings, plus more people from a nearby homeless shelter. http://www.hospitalsafetycenter.com/print/57844/top ic/WS_HSC_BHS.html • Oct 2004: 85 employees evacuated after 40 gallon PA A spill at Bellvue, WA Coca Cola bottling plant • Oct 2003: St Vincent's Hospital, Melbourne, Austral ia, PAA leak at hospital results in evacuation of department and operating r ooms. http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2003/10/07/106529 2575186.html PAA Exposure from FDA MAUDE Database (2013 only) • Medivators Medivators Rapicide Pa Peracetic Acid Di sinfectant Event Description: (b)(6) report received (b)(4) 20 13 stating: inhalation exposure for an extended period of time. Operator loss consciousness and sym ptoms included headache, nausea, nose bleed, vomiting and tightness in chest. [Manufacturer could get no further details, but there must be more to this report than what is stated above] 6 • Steris Corporation - Hopkins Steris System 1E Liqui d Chemical Sterilant Processing System, Event Description: When a user facility employee in itiated a processing cycle on a system 1 e, the cycle aborted for a fill problem; this occurred 3 t imes. Each time the employee removed the full s40 cup and disposed of the contents by mo ving the cup to an empty sink, cutting it open and manually rinsing out the contents. Ther e was a complaint of a strong odor. The employee visited employee health, was given a b reathing treatment and sent home for the remainder of the day. The employee returned to work on the next scheduled shift and is fine. No procedural delays or cancellations reported. [Manufacturer found user error] 7 • System 1E: AER leaked solution for 23 minutes. Empl oyee wet with burning skin, OK after washing and changing. Technician could not repeat. http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/c fmaude/detail.cfm?mdrfoi__id=2921001 • Mild chemical burns on arms and face from removing the S40 sterilant. 8,9, 10,11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 6 http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs /cfmaude/Detail.CFM?MDRFOI__ID=3071140 7 http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/c fmaude/Detail.CFM?MDRFOI__ID=3039025 8 http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/c fmaude/detail.cfm?mdrfoi__id=3027624 9 http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/c fmaude/detail.cfm?mdrfoi__id=3127790
25. ® Page 25 of 26 C:\Users\jrobinson.CHEMDAQ2\Dropbox\Industrial\Arti cles, Studies, Research\Summary of Information of t he Safe use of Peracetic Acid May 2014.doc ChemDAQ Inc. • 300 Business Center Drive • Pittsburg h, PA • 15205 phone 412.787.0202 • fax 412.788.2526 This site has been produced by a sub-group of the I UPAC Advisory Committee on Agrochemicals. 25 HUMAN HEALTH Property Value Source/Quality Score/Other Information Interpretation Mammals - Acute oral LD50 (mg kg - 1 ) 1540 Q3 Rat Moderate Mammals - Dermal LD50 (mg kg - 1 body weight) > 1410 Q3 Rabbit - Mammals - Inhalation LC50 (mg l - 1 ) - - - WHO Classification NL - Not listed US EPA Classification (formulation) III - Caution - Slightly toxic EC Risk Classification [T - Toxic: R23, R24, R25], [H - Handling risks: R5 , R34] EC Safety Classification S3, S27, S36 ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake (mg kg - 1 bw day -1 ) - - - ARfD - Acute Reference Dose (mg kg - 1 bw day -1 ) - - - AOEL - Acceptable Operator Exposure Level - Systemic (mg kg -1 bw day -1 ) - - - Dermal penetration studies (%) - - - Dangerous Substances Directive 76/464 - - - Exposure Limits - - - Exposure Routes Public: - Occupational: [Occupational exposure to peracetic a cid can occur through dermal contact and inhalation of vapour] Examples of European MRLs (mg kg -1 ) Value: - Note: For the EU pesticides database click here Drinking Water MAC (μ g l - 1 ) - - - Health issues: 25 http://agrochemicals.iupac.org/
5. ® Page 5 of 26 C:\Users\jrobinson.CHEMDAQ2\Dropbox\Industrial\Arti cles, Studies, Research\Summary of Information of t he Safe use of Peracetic Acid May 2014.doc ChemDAQ Inc. • 300 Business Center Drive • Pittsburg h, PA • 15205 phone 412.787.0202 • fax 412.788.2526 • The optimal time averaging approach is not clearly established by the data; however, a combination of a TWA with a STEL is recommended as a preferred risk management option. http://www.tera.org/about/SOTposters/Peracetic%20SO T%20Poster%202013.pdf Peracetic Acid Exposure in the Headlines • April 2014 Chicken plant workers say chemicals incl uding PAA sprayed on carcasses are making them sick. http://www.wsbtv.com/news/news/chicken- plant-workers-say-chemicals-sprayed-carcas/nfg73/ • Nov. 2013 Harrogate Hospital, UK, PAA spill in endo scopy unit causes 100 outpatients to be evacuated, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-york- north-yorkshire-24864879 • Nov 2013. Hazmat Crews clean up PAA Spill at Cape C oral Hospital, Fl. http://www.abc-7.com/story/23979880/cape-crews-clea n-up-hospital- chemical-spill#.Uozeu9LkuSp • July 2013: Pacific Coast Fruit Company, PAA spill a t Pacific Coast Fruit Co. in Northeast Portland injured one person and led to the evacuation of about 150 employees. http://www.oregonlive.com/portland/index.ssf/2013/0 7/portland_hazmat_cre ws_respond.html • June 2012: PAA spill causes evacuation of hospital floor, Northbay Regional Surgical Center. http://novato.patch.com/groups/police-and-fire/p/ha zmat- specialists-respond-to-medical-office • Feb. 2012, Llandudno Hospital, Wales, UK, PAA spill in hospital resulted in the early closure of the out-patients department. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-north-west-wales -17215178 • Jan. 2012: 1 killed, 3 injured in PAA explosion in Shanghai Chemical plant. http://english.people.com.cn/90882/7696726.html • 2011: USDA Inspector Dies from Chronic Exposure to PAA & Chlorine in Poultry Plant http://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/at-chicken-p lants- chemicals-blamed-for-health-ailments-are-poised-to- proliferate/2013/04/25/d2a65ec8-97b1-11e2-97cd-3d8c 1afe4f0f_print.html • May 2010: 1 worker has suffered injury after acid f umes force partial evacuation at Ft. Worth Dannon plant. http://www.injuryblawg.com/608/Acid-Mishap-Forces-P artial-Evacuation-of- Fort-Wort.htm • April 2010: Patients were evacuated after a PAA spi ll at Addenbrooke’s Hospital (UK). http://www.ipswichstar.co.uk/news/acid_spill_at_add enbrooke_s_sparks_evac uation_1_211882 • June 2009: Two hospitalized after PAA spill in Sutt er Gould Medical Foundation Specialty Center, Modesto, CA. http://www.modbee.com/2009/06/30/765654/two-hospita lized-after-acid- spill.html
7. ® Page 7 of 26 C:\Users\jrobinson.CHEMDAQ2\Dropbox\Industrial\Arti cles, Studies, Research\Summary of Information of t he Safe use of Peracetic Acid May 2014.doc ChemDAQ Inc. • 300 Business Center Drive • Pittsburg h, PA • 15205 phone 412.787.0202 • fax 412.788.2526 • The user facility reported that an employee opened the lid to a system 1e, after noticing s40 powder in the bottom of the cup well, and experienc ed a burning sensation in her eyes. The s40 cup was disposed of. The employee self-administered otc eye drops and referred to the msds for the product for treatment instructions. The employe e has no sustaining injuries. No procedural delays or cancellations occurred. 17 • The user facility reported a strong odor coming fro m their system 1e unit during the first drain of the chamber. The odor irritated her nose and eyes so she left the room until the processing cycle completed. No injuries to hospital staff or patient s were reported. No procedural delays or cancellations occurred. Manufacturer Narrative: A steris service technician arrived on-site to inspect the unit and found that the new drain line, with 90 degree fittings on both ends, that was installed during the last service activity was creating an increase in resist ance for the water flow during the draining processes. The increased resistance caused the wate r to flow more forcefully, allowing vapor to form during the draining process, resulting in a st rong odor. The technician removed the 90 degree hose fittings from the drain line and re-secured it to the drain. The technician ran several test cycles, confirmed the unit operational and returned it to service. • System 1E: The user facility reported that an emplo yee was affected by sterilant fumes after he opened the lid of a system 1e unit. The employee wa s not wearing protective eyewear at the time of the event. The employee had noticed an error mes sage on the system 1e that read ‘heat problem, cycle not complete.’ The employee then removed the partially emptied sterilant cup from the aspirator and was affected by sterilant fumes in the eyes and nasal p assage . The employee then disposed of the s40 steriliant cup in a garbage bag . The employee washed his eyes using the eye wash station and visited an optometrist where he wa s prescribed eye drops for the irritation. The employee has since returned to work. The instrument in the system 1e at the time of the event was not used on patients and was reprocessed in another machine. 18 • System 1E: The user facility reported that an emplo yee initiated a processing cycle, saw fluid starting to spill out from under the lid and detected an odor . The facility biomed was present in the room and stated he was starting to get a headache . A nurse who was also present in the room stated she started to feel sick . The nurse was advised to leave the room and sit d own for a while. The nurse felt fine after leaving the room. No medi cal treatment was sought or administered. No injuries or procedural delays/cancellations were re ported. 19 • System 1E: The user facility reported that after in itiating a processing cycle it had faulted. An employee removed the s40 cup and liquid contacted h er. The employee stated she experienced irritation to her nose and throat and went outside for fresh air and did not miss ti me from work. No further medical treatment was sought or administere d. 20 10 http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/c fmaude/detail.cfm?mdrfoi__id=3129884 11 http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/c fmaude/detail.cfm?mdrfoi__id=2922478 12 http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/c fmaude/detail.cfm?mdrfoi__id=2946267 13 http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/c fmaude/detail.cfm?mdrfoi__id=2930005 14 http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/c fmaude/detail.cfm?mdrfoi__id=3331612 15 http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/c fmaude/detail.cfm?mdrfoi__id=3360003 16 http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/c fmaude/detail.cfm?mdrfoi__id=3140185 17 http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/c fmaude/detail.cfm?mdrfoi__id=3425542 18 http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/c fmaude/detail.cfm?mdrfoi__id=3168482 19 http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/c fmaude/detail.cfm?mdrfoi__id=3178297 20 http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/c fmaude/detail.cfm?mdrfoi__id=3193921
22. ® Page 22 of 26 C:\Users\jrobinson.CHEMDAQ2\Dropbox\Industrial\Arti cles, Studies, Research\Summary of Information of t he Safe use of Peracetic Acid May 2014.doc ChemDAQ Inc. • 300 Business Center Drive • Pittsburg h, PA • 15205 phone 412.787.0202 • fax 412.788.2526 TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES: ROUTE/ ORGANISM DOSE EFFECT REFERENCE Skin mouse lowest published toxic dose: 21 gm/kg/26 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria Skin and Appendages: Tumors Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application JNCIAM 55,1359,1975 ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES: ROUTE/ ORGANISM DOSE EFFECT REFERENCE Inhalation rat lethal concentration (50 percent kil l): 450 mg/m 3 N/R GISAAA 48(6),28,1983 Intravenous mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 17,860 μ g/kg N/R YHTPAD 23,345,1988 Oral guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 10 m g/kg N/R BSPII* 1/75-19B Oral mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 210 mg/kg N/R GISAAA 48(6),28,1983 Oral rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,540 μ L/kg N/R UCDS** 12/12/1968 Skin rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,410 μ L /kg N/R UCDS** 12/12/1968 OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES: ROUTE/ ORGANISM DOSE EFFECT REFERENCE inhalation guinea pig lowest published toxic concentration: 186 mg/m 3 /1 hour/90 day- intermittent Liver: Fatty liver degeneration Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes Blood: Pigmented or nucleated red blood cells WZHMAE 33,513,1984 inhalation mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 186 mg/m 3 /1 hour/90 day- intermittent Liver: Fatty liver degeneration Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes WZHMAE 33,513,1984 inhalation rat lowest published toxic concentration: 350 mg/m 3 /30 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other GISAAA 48(6),28,1983
4. ® Page 4 of 26 C:\Users\jrobinson.CHEMDAQ2\Dropbox\Industrial\Arti cles, Studies, Research\Summary of Information of t he Safe use of Peracetic Acid May 2014.doc ChemDAQ Inc. • 300 Business Center Drive • Pittsburg h, PA • 15205 phone 412.787.0202 • fax 412.788.2526 • 103 ppm causes severe cough, lacrimation, salivat ion, decreased coordination and alertness, labored breathing and death in rats. • 5.4 ppm caused a 50% respiratory depression rate in mice • 2 ppm resulted in extreme discomfort to mucosal m embranes • 0.5 to 1 ppm produced mild discomfort • 0.5 to 0.6 ppm for up to 3 hours was not immediat ely irritating but was considered to be unpleasant if the exposure was over an extend ed time. • < 0.5 ppm no discomfort • 0.13 to 0.17 ppm the PAA was detectable but was n ot unpleasant EPA Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) http://www.epa.gov/oppt/aegl/pubs/results80.htm Peracetic Acid 79-21-0 (Interim) mg/m 3 12/13/04 10 min 30 min 60 min 4 hr 8 hr AEGL 1 0.52 mg/m 3 0.52 mg/m 3 0.52 mg/m 3 0.52 mg/m 3 0.52 mg/m 3 AEGL 2 1.6 mg/m 3 1.6 mg/m 3 1.6 mg/m 3 1.6 mg/m 3 1.6 mg/m 3 AEGL 3 60 mg/m 3 30 mg/m 3 15 mg/m 3 6.3 mg/m 3 4.1 mg/m 3 Note that values are in mg/m 3 NOT ppm. The ppm equivalents are shown below: EPA AEGL 1: 0.52 mg/m 3 (0.17 ppm) EPA AEGL 2: 1.6 mg/m 3 (0.51 ppm) EPA AEGL 3: 4.6 mg/m 3 (1.3 ppm) Solvay Solvay (manufacturer of PAA) recommended exposure l imits for PAA = 0.15 ppm TWA, 0.46 mg/m3 TWA. http://www.solvaychemicals.us/static/wma/pdf/6/6/7/ 0/HOOH-PAA- RESP.pdf TERA/Ecolab A study has been conducted by researches from TERA and Ecolab (a major manufacturer of PAA) on the appropriate exposure limits for PAA by comparing the literature. Their conclusions were: • We calculated potential TWA OELs ranging from 0.26 to 1.56 mg/m 3 [0.084 to 0.50 ppm]. • This is similar to the range of 0.62 – 2 mg/m 3 [0.20 to 0.64 ppm] found among the published OELs. • Any value within the range could be justified as pr otective of worker health in light of the uncertainties in the data and the precision of the OEL methodology. • More definitive sensory irritation studies would fu rther clarify selection of a value in this range. • The ultimate OEL choice is a policy-based risk mana gement decision, not a scientific one.
21. ® Page 21 of 26 C:\Users\jrobinson.CHEMDAQ2\Dropbox\Industrial\Arti cles, Studies, Research\Summary of Information of t he Safe use of Peracetic Acid May 2014.doc ChemDAQ Inc. • 300 Business Center Drive • Pittsburg h, PA • 15205 phone 412.787.0202 • fax 412.788.2526 Laboured breathing. Shortness of breath. Sore throat. Symptoms may be delayed (see Notes). breathing protection. position. Refer for medical attention. See Notes. •SKIN MAY BE ABSORBED! Redness. Pain. Blisters. Skin burns. Protective gloves. Protective clothing. First rinse with plenty of water, then remove contaminate d clothes and rinse again. Refer for medical attention. •EYES Redness. Pain. Severe deep burns. Face shield, or eye protection in combination with breathing protection. First rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible), then take to a doctor. •INGESTION Abdominal pain. Burning sensation. Shock or collapse. Do not eat, drink, or smoke during work. Rinse mouth. Do NOT induce vomiting. Refer for medical attention. http://oshthai.labour.go.th/labourhealth/ipcsneng/n eng1031.htm RTECS Database – Peracetic Acid, RTECS #: SD8750000 (last updated May 2007) (Available from http://www.emedco.info/rtecs/sd8583b0.htm ) SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES: ROUTE/ ORGANISM DOSE EFFECT REFERENCE Eye rabbit 1 mg severe UCDS** 12/12/1968 Skin rabbit 500 mg open irritation test severe UCDS** 12/12/1968 MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES: SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/ ORGANISM/ TISSUE DOSE REFERENCE DNA damage human leukocyte 0.5 ppm/1 hour MUTAEX 19,157,2004 DNA damage multiple other fish 0.61 mg/L/20 day- continuous MUREAV 557,119,2004 mutation in microorganisms Saccharomyes cerevisiae 5 ppm/2 hour MUTAEX 19,157,2004 micronucleus test multiple other fish 0.2 ppm/72 hour- continuous MUREAV 587,103,2005 REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES: ROUTE/ ORGANISM DOSE EFFECT REFERENCE N/R N/R N/R N/R
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