Guide to Gas Detection in Healthcare Canada

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15. Copyright ChemDAQ Inc. (2014) Page 15 of 16 CM - 118 - C - 0.00 gas /vapor leaks are an indicator that maintenance is required) and if that fails to solve the probl em, then adapt work practices as discussed previously to crack the door open and use the monitor to tell employees when they can safely approach to unload the sterilizer. Another common question is whether a monitor for heavier gases and vapors should be placed low because the gas sinks in air. Those who did Chemistry may remember the experiments with pouring heavy gases and vapors like nitrogen dioxide and bromine that form brown clouds that sink to the floor. In some applications where the air is static (man - holes, grain silos and other confined space entry) stratification of gases by mass is an important issue. People who go down manholes sometimes put their monitors at ankle height while descending, so that they will hear an alarm before their head reac hes that level. For most common applications with high air turnover, the air turbulence is so great that stratification is not significant. The monitors should therefore be placed at breathing height. In conclusion, area gas monitors should be placed near the sources of gas so that they can inform people whether it is safe to be in the area and when it is safe to return to an area after a release of gas or vapor. The monitors should be place d at breathing height, ~ 5 feet (1.2m) . Every facility is di fferen t and so your ChemDAQ representative will work with you to design a system that meets your needs.

10. Copyright ChemDAQ Inc. (2014) Page 10 of 16 CM - 118 - C - 0.00 export the data as a .csv (text) file for import into Excel or other spreadsheet or to an SQL data for real time interfacing to building systems. The DAQ can operate up to four zones, each with up to 8 monitors, thus a single DAQ can be connected to up to 32 different monitors of any gas combination offered by ChemDAQ. Certifications The Steri - Trac is certified by Metlabs to the UL & CSA standards for electrical safety 61010 - 10 and FCC EM interference/susceptibility (47 CFR part 15 subpart B). The Steri - Trac sensor module is certified as intrinsically safe by Intertec (www.intertek.com) to UL standards 913, 60079 - 0, 60079 - 11 and CSA C22, no. 157; for use in a hazardous atmosphere; Class 1, Div 1, Groups C & D, and T3. For Europe and other parts of the world, the ChemDAQ Steri - Trac also has a CE mark for electrical safety and EMI. The electrical safety and EMI testing was p erformed and is certified by Met labs ( www.metlabs.com ), to EN standards 61010 - 10 and EN ICES - 003. The Steri - Trac system is not currently ATEX certified for use in hazardous/classified areas (where there is a risk of explosion), but we will be applying for ATEX later this year. In the intrinsic safety configuration the sensor module is placed in the classified area and is isolated from the monitor located in a safe location, by a barrier box.

12. Copyright ChemDAQ Inc. (2014) Page 12 of 16 CM - 118 - C - 0.00 Distance Between Monitors However, the optimum design of the gas monitoring system must take into account the placement of the gas sources, e.g. (sterilizers), abators and ventilation relative to the operator. If the operator is very close to the gas source, then the gas monitors should be closer. For example if the only gas source is 10 feet away from the operator and the monitor is between the gas source and the operator, that one monitor will suffice since the gas has to pass the monitor to reach the operat or. If however, the gas source is close to the operator, such as a hospital sterilizer immediately in - front of the operator, waiting to be unloaded, then a monitor four feet way would be ineffective. In this last scenario, the monitor shou ld be placed as close as possible to the sterilizer door, and in many cases it is preferably placed directly over the door. Hospital Chemical Sterilizers and Reprocessors Wall mounted Sm all Sterilizers We are often asked about the best placement of a monitor on or near a small sterilizer of the type commonly used in hospital s . These sterilizers are about the size of a home dishwasher and m ay be either free standing or wall mounted. If the sterilizer is wall mounted, then we recommend placing a monitor on the wall close to the front of the sterilizer. Sterilizers can potentially leak from the door when it is opened and so we need a monitor close by to provide suitable warning. This is particularly true in situations where users regularly open the sterilizer door and reach in to remove the load. Ideally, the monitor is closer to the gas source than the operator, but for operations such as unl oading a sterilizer, the monitor should be placed as close as possible. If there is a risk of leakage from the back of the sterilizer, then a monitor should be placed there as well. A monitor at the back is especially important where the rear of one or m ore sterilizers is in a utility space, such that any leak may build up in there and affect anyone entering the area. Free Standing Small Sterilizers If the sterilizer is a free standing unit, the sensor should be placed above the door ( ChemDAQ’s remote sensor ) and have a monitor on a nearby wall. If above the door is not possible, then as close to the front of the sterilizer as possible. Sterilizers can sometimes emit gas or vapor when the door is first opened after a cycle. We have seen 30 to 40 ppm hydrogen peroxide be emitted by some sterilizers each time the door was opened, significantly higher than

16. Copyright ChemDAQ Inc. (2014) Page 16 of 16 CM - 118 - C - 0.00 For additional information, contact ChemDAQ Inc . 300 Business Center Dr, Pittsburgh, PA, 15205 , USA 011 - 412 - 787 - 0202 Fax 011 - 412 - 788 - 2526 info@chemdaq.com Your Local ChemDAQ Representative is:

11. Copyright ChemDAQ Inc. (2014) Page 11 of 16 CM - 118 - C - 0.00 Placement of Monitor s An area monitor, as the name suggests, is intended to monitor an area to determine if and when it is safe for people to be there. If the concentration of the target gas is too high, then the area monitor will pro vide an alert and workers can correct the problem or leave the area. If an area is evacuated, the monitor serves to both warn others not to enter the affected area and to show when it is safe to return. Area monitors should be placed close to potential s ources of the gas or vapor being monitored, so for example if the gas 34 is hydrogen peroxide used for hospital sterilization, then the monitors should be placed close the sterilizer. An area monitor should detect the gas before it reaches the people working in the area. The monitors should be placed at a height similar to breathing zone for most people , typically about five feet (1.5 m) off the floor. The sensor or sampling point should be open to air and not covered or blocked. Range of Monitor A common question is how far can a gas monitor detect gas, and the accurate answer for diffusion type sensors is that the sensors detect only the gas that reaches them. It is possible to model the gas diffusion in static air, but the results are of little use because this model does not apply to real life. In a typical hospital sterilization department with large air turnovers (e.g. > ~10 turnovers/hr) it is difficult to predict how far the gas will travel because of the rapid turb ulence of the air. Gas detection instrument manufacturers use a rule of thumb that gas monitors have a maximum radius of detection of about 4 feet (1.2 m) and so two gas monitors should be no more than 8 feet apart (~3m). 34 In normal usage, a compound in the air is considered to be a gas if the boiling point of the compound is below ambient temperature, but a vapor if the boiling point is above a mbient. In this report the terms gas and vapor are used interchangeably.

14. Copyright ChemDAQ Inc. (2014) Page 14 of 16 CM - 118 - C - 0.00 The placement of the DAQ needs to serve several pu rposes. In normal operation, the DAQ calculates and if necessary sounds the TWA alarms and so the DAQ must be placed near the work area. In addition, for routine practice of printing reports etc., the DAQ should be in a convenient location. However, in the unlikely event of a major leak where the work area is evacuated, the DAQ should still be accessible in order to determine when it is safe to return. I f the DAQ is located in the manager’s or supervisor’s office , this location may be a problem in an emer gency situation if the office is within the affected area. One solution is to place remote video displays in the work area so that operators can see the TWA values and receive the alarm and the DAQ itself can be placed further away. The remote video displ ay mirrors the DAQ’s display and so shows the current and TWA exposures for all monitors. Some facilities place a remote video display in the security office so that current gas readings and alarm statuses are available to emergency responders. Another sol ution is to use a second computer in a remote location and connect to it to the DAQ using commercial remote access software such as PC anywhere. The advantage of this second approach is that operators can use the other functions of the DAQ (reports, data e xport, configuration screens) as if they were in front of it. Work Practices As previously discussed above incorporating the gas detection system into work practices is important for improving workplace safety and enab ling the safe use of the biocidal chemicals. Some sterilizers may release vapors when they opened at the end of the cycle . For gases such as hydrogen peroxide that have essentially no smell, the monitor provides a reliable way to determine that the conc entration is safe. If the remote sensor is placed above the door, then workers can step away from the sterilizer after opening the door and return once the monitor says it is safe to do so. Even for vapors such as peracetic acid which has a smell, few peo ple’s noses are sufficiently calibrated to be able to determine the concentration from odor and so determine if the level above or below safe levels. It is important that the remote sensor be placed above the door and not be pushed back since the plume of gas coming from the sterilizer is likely to completely pass by a sensor that has been pushed away, but the person leaning in to unload the sterilizer may not be so fortunate. Some users have pushed the sensor back because it kept responding whenever the y opened the sterilizer door. Moving the sensor only masks the problem, it does not fix it. It is far better to get the sterilizer serviced (sometimes small

2. Copyright ChemDAQ Inc. (2014) Page 2 of 16 CM - 118 - C - 0.00 Occupational Exposures Toxic gas or vapor concentrations are typically measured in parts per million (ppm) or in mg/m 3 . A ppm is a fract ional concentration, i.e. if the concentration of peracetic acid is 1 ppm, then for every million molecules in the air, one of them is peracetic acid. For most toxic gases, the effect of exposure is cumulative and thus m ost exposures are assessed as time weighted averages (TWAs), such that an exposure of 1 ppm for 8 hours is the same exposure as 8 ppm for 1 hour , or 32 ppm for 15 minutes. The 8 hour limit is sometimes called a long term exposure limit (LTEL). For some vapors, such as peracetic acid, a hi gh concentration for a short time is more harmful than the equivalent lower concentration for a longer time. For these gases, a shorter ( 15 minute ) TWA is used, often called a short term exposure limit (STEL). Some gas exposures are measured on their insta nta neous value, for example OSHA has a permissible exposure limit ceiling for chlorine of 1 ppm. The ChemDAQ gas monitoring system offers instantaneous concentrations, STELs and 8 hour TWAs , with the instantaneous value on the monitor display and the DAQ computer provides instantaneous levels, STELs and 8 hour TWAs and associated alarms. . Occupational Exposure Limits The U nited States has two federal government agencies related to occupational safety. The National Inst itute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Occupational Safety Administration (OSHA). The NIOSH perform s research and has developed Recommended Exposure Limits (RELs) for many compounds. The current values are available in the NIOSH Pocket Gui de to Chemical Hazards 1 and the RELs are often quoted on safety data sheets etc. NIOSH also produces a list of Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health Limits (IDLHs) for many chemicals. 2 These relate to the exposure that would cause serious injury or se rious impairment preventing escape. For example the IDLH for ethylene oxide is 800ppm, but for the more corrosive hydrogen peroxide it is 75 ppm. 1 The guide can be search at http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/ 2 A list of NIOSH IDLHs is available at http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/idlh/intridl4.html

13. Copyright ChemDAQ Inc. (2014) Page 13 of 16 CM - 118 - C - 0.00 the ACGIH TLV of 1 ppm (8 hr TWA) 35 and similar magnitude to the NIOSH Immediately Dangerous to Life an d Health value (75 ppm). 36 Where there are several free standing sterilizers in a row, the best configuration is to have a sensor over every door to provide protection as described above. In some cases, financial constraints demand that a monitor is placed between each pair of ste rilizers. This configuration will detect major leaks of gas or vapor but will not provide warning against small releases of gas or vapor when the sterilizer is opened. If the sub - optimal configuration is used, then work practices s hould be adopted to ensure that operators are not exposed, for example, at the end of a cycle open the door and wait a short time for any vapors to disperse before emptying the load. Endoscope Reprocessors Many e ndoscope reprocessors etc. have tops that open and so it is not easy to mount a sensor on top of them. In these cases, the sensor should be mounted as close as possible, where it is not in the way. The sensor may be wall mounted or mounted to a post. Typi cally, the sensor and monitor are mounted on the wall behind the reprocessor but if space is limited then the sensor should be mounted as a remote sensor with the monitor located at a convenient location further away, but where it can easily be seen by the operator. As with the free standing sterilizer, if the sensor is located further back from the reprocessor it is advisable to step back when opening the lid at the completion of a cycle for a moment to allow any vapors to disperse before removing the endo scope. Placement of Remote Displays The purpose of gas monitoring is to prevent employee exposure and remote displays play a valuable role. If there is an area monitor in a room, where there is a the poten tial for a major gas or vapor leak, such that there would be a significant risk to anyone walking into the room, then a remote display on the entrance way makes sense. The remote display is connected to the monitor and mirrors the display on the monitor. T hus a person about to enter the room can see at a glance what the gas/vapor concentration is inside and act accordingly. The remote display is located wherever it will most easily be seen. Typical locations are above the door, or next to the door. If the d oor has window in it, such that a person outside about to enter can easily read the monitor display, then the remote display is normally not needed. Placement of DAQ 35 29 CFR 1910.1000; Tabl Z - 1. 36 http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/idlh/intridl4.html , retrieved 2/12/14

1. Copyright ChemDAQ Inc. (2014) Page 1 of 16 CM - 118 - C - 0.00 G uide to G as Detection in Healthcare in Canada Table of Contents Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 1 Occupational Exposures ................................ ................................ ....................... 2 Exposure Limits ................................ ................................ .............................. 2 Applicable Regulations ................................ ................................ ................... 5 Regulations by Jurisdiction ................................ ................................ ............. 6 Exposure Limit by Jurisdiction ................................ ................................ ....... 6 Accreditation ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 8 Overview of The ChemDAQ Steri - Trac ™ Sy stem ................................ ............... 8 Monitor ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 8 Sensor Module ................................ ................................ ................................ 9 Sensor Calibration (SXP) ™ ................................ ................................ ............. 9 Remote Displays ................................ ................................ ............................. 9 DAQ ™ Computer ................................ ................................ ............................ 9 Certifications ................................ ................................ ................................ . 10 Placement of Monitors ................................ ................................ ....................... 11 Range of Monitor ................................ ................................ .......................... 11 Distance Between Monitors ................................ ................................ .......... 12 Hospital Chemical Sterilizers and Reprocessors ................................ ........... 12 Wall mounted Small Sterilizers ................................ ................................ 12 Free Standing Small Sterilizers ................................ ................................ 12 Endoscope Reprocessors ................................ ................................ .......... 13 Placement of Remote Displays ................................ ................................ .......... 13 Placement of DAQ ................................ ................................ ........................ 13 Work Practices ................................ ................................ .............................. 14 Introduction Biocidal c hemicals play a vit al role in modern life and their application has allowed significant advances in reducing infection in healthcare. However the use of sterilants and high level disinfections presents a risk to those people performing these essential tasks and gas monitorin g is a part of the means to ensure that these chemicals can be used safely.

9. Copyright ChemDAQ Inc. (2014) Page 9 of 16 CM - 118 - C - 0.00  Sensor Module : the sensor module contains the gas s ensor, circuitry to support it, chemical filters (if applicable) and an i nternal battery to enable fast start - up when the sensor module is initially installed . The sensor module plugs into the monitor and passes the current gas readings to the monitor. The sensor module connect s directly on to the monitor or via a remote sensor mount.  Sensor Calibration (SXP) ™ : The ChemDAQ sensor modules, like all gas sensors, require periodic calibration as a basic function check of operation and to ensure that the output matches the actual gas concentration. Field calibration is often problematic, especially with reactive gases such as peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide. Instead ChemDAQ provides a calibration service for all users of ChemDAQ equipment. ChemDAQ (or ChemDAQ partner) tracks the date since the last calibration, cont acts the customer and sends factory calibrated sensors. The customer swaps the sensors (very simple), and returns the old sensors to ChemDAQ; where the chemical filters are replaced (peracetic acid and ethylene oxide), the batteries recharged and the senso rs recalibrated. All calibrations are performed using the target gas, which for hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid means generating and analyzing the test gas before the sensor modules can be calibrated.  Remote Displays : The remote displays look somewhat like the monitor but without the connector for the sensor mount. The remote display is used to warn approach ing people of a gas or vapor leak before they enter the area. The remote display mirrors the monitor display a nd horn alarm status. One monitor can be connected to and power up to three remote displays.  DAQ ™ Computer : The DAQ is a computer that receives data from the monitors (any combination of gases), calculates the time weight ed average (TWA) values of the exposure and displays the instantaneous and TWA values and alarms if the TWA’s exceed preset alarm limits. The DAQ also warns if a channel is approaching the TWA limit (impending alarms). The DAQ also has graphing, reports an d can

8. Copyright ChemDAQ Inc. (2014) Page 8 of 16 CM - 118 - C - 0.00 The use of sterilant and other biocidal chemicals is essential to modern healthcare and gas detection provides a means to enable employers to use these chemicals and their associated equipment safely. Accreditation The largest accreditation organization in Canada is Accreditation Canada, which is an independent, not - for - profit organization that has been improving accreditation services since 1958 and now accredits more than 1,200 organizations repr esenting 5,700 sites and services across Canada , representing the large majority of Canadian healthcare organizations. 32 Accreditation Canada develops its own standard s which include chemical safety. Accreditation Canada is in turn accredited by t he Interna tional Society for Quality in Health Care . 33 Overview of t he ChemDAQ Steri - Trac ™ System The ChemDAQ gas monitoring system is modular so that it can be tailored to each customer’s needs; and is made up of the following main components.  Monitor : the monitor connects to the sensor module and displays the current gas concentration. It also has two instantaneous alarms, high and low. Under normal conditions, the display is green, turns yellow for low alarm and red for high alarm. A horn sounds an al ert if the low or high alarms are reached. The monitors also contains two relays, each triggered by the alarm level, that can be used to interface with air handlers, strobes etc. The monitor can operate a s a stand - alone instrument or it can be connected to the DAQ computer. Monitors are currently available for peracetic acid , hydrogen peroxide, ethylene oxide , ozone, oxygen and combustible (LEL). The latter two are primarily used in commercial applications. Each monitor is configured for a specific gas, but can be factory reconfigured for a different gas. 32 http://www.accreditation.ca/about - us 33 http://www.isqua.org/

5. Copyright ChemDAQ Inc. (2014) Page 5 of 16 CM - 118 - C - 0.00 Applicable R egulations The healthcare workplace comes under the same occupational safety laws as other employers. Below is a very abbreviated overview of the Canadian workplace legal fra mework. 13 In Canada there are ten provinces and three territories. The provinces are considered co - sovereign states with the federal government; and the territories though under the a egis of the federal government, also promulgate their own laws. The fe deral occupational health and safety (OH&S) legislation is commonly referred to as Canada Labour Code Part II and regulations. Unlike the US government, the Canadian federal government’s mandate is fairly limited. Only about 10% of the Canadian workforce f alls under the OH&S jurisdiction of the federal government. The remaining 90% of Canadian workers fall under the legislation of the province or territory where they work. Federal legislation covers employees of the federal government and Crown agencies and corporations across Canada. The Canada Labour Code also applies to employees of companies or sectors that operate across provincial or international borders. Using the federal laws as an example, the Canada labor Code imposes a legal duty on employers to provide a safe work environment. 124. Every employer shall ensure that the health and safety at work of every person employed by the employer is protected. 14 The Canada labour code imposes broad duties; and specific requirements are described in the more detailed regulations. For example: Control of Hazards [Canada Occupational Health and Safety Regulations (SOR/86 - 304)] 15 10.19 (1) An employee shall be kept free from exposure to a concentration of (a) an airborne chemical agent, ... , in excess of the value for that chemical agent adopted by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, in its publication entitled Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices, dated 1994 - 1995, as amended from time to time; ... 13 Th is description is intended to give a brief overv iew; it should not be taken as legal advice. Please consult a Canadian lawyer if you have any specific questions. 14 http://laws - lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/L - 2/page - 55.html#h - 51 15 http://laws - lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/regulations/SOR - 86 - 304/page - 49.html#h - 122

6. Copyright ChemDAQ Inc. (2014) Page 6 of 16 CM - 118 - C - 0.00 The statutes and regula tions in the provinces and territories are broadly similar to the federal requirements; i.e. broad mandates in the statutes and specific details in the regulations. However, the details vary significantly from jurisdiction to jurisdiction and users should check their local regulations. Regulations by Jurisdiction For occupational exposure limits the majority of Canadian provinces and Territories follow the ACGIH TLVs . Some follow the current ACGIH TLVs, where as others reference a particular year. For those jurisdictions that directly reference the current ACGIH TLVs, the 0.4 ppm STEL for peracetic acid is now the legal occupational exposure limit. The occupational exposure limits for each Canadian province (P) and Ter ritory (T) for ethylene oxide and hydrogen peroxide are set out below: Exposure Limit by Jurisdiction in ppm as 8 hr TWA / 15 min STEL Jurisdiction Ethylene Oxide Hydrogen Peroxide Notes Federal Government 1 / - 1 / - ACGIH 16 Alberta (P) 1 / - 1 / - 2006 ACGIH) 17 British Columbia (P) 0.1 / 1 1 / - ACGIH + list . 18 Manitoba (P) 1 / - 1 / - ACGIH 19 New Brunswick (P) 1 / - 1 / - 1997 ACGIH 20 Newfoundland and Labrador (P): 1 / - 1 / - ACGIH 21 16 Canada Occupational Health and Safety Regulations (SOR/86 - 304 , Regulations are current to 2014 - 02 - 06 ; http://laws - lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/regulations/SOR - 86 - 304/page - 49.html#h - 122 17 Occupational Health And Safety Code 2009 , http://work.alberta.ca/ documents/WHS - LEG_ohsc_2009.pdf , 18 http://www2.worksafebc.com/publications/ohsregulation/GuidelinePart5.asp?ReportID=32895 , last updated May 2013 19 Workplace Safety and Health Regulation - Part 36 - Chemical and Biological , Last updated September 6, 2013 ; http://safemanitoba.com/sites/default/files/resources/lim_part_36_ - _july_18_2006.pdf 20 §2491), New Brunswick Regulation 91 - 191 Under The Règlemen t Du Nouveau - Brunswick 91 - 191 Pris En Vertu De La Occupational Health And Safety Act (O.C. 91 - 1035) Loi Sur L’hygiène Et La Sécurité Au Travail (D.C. 91 - 1035) Filed December 3, 1991 http://www.gnb.ca/0062/pdf - regs/91 - 191.pdf 21 §42(7) Newfoundland And Labr ador Regulation 5/12 Occupational Health and Safety Regulations, 2012 under the Occupational Health and Safety Act (O.C. 2012 - 005) http://www.assembly.nl.ca/legislation/sr/regulations/rc120005.htm

4. Copyright ChemDAQ Inc. (2014) Page 4 of 16 CM - 118 - C - 0.00 ACGIH TLVs 10 Compound 8 Hr Exposure Limit (ppm) 15 Minutes Exposure Limit (ppm) Ethylene Oxide 1 5 Hydrogen Peroxide 1 n/a Peracetic Acid n/a 0.4 ppm The ChemDAQ monitor can easily detect PAA at the STEL ( monitor range 0 to 6 ppm, mi nimum detection limit 0.04 ppm). Peracetic acid is used as an equilibrium mixture with acetic acid and hydrogenperoxide and so there is always hydrogen peroxide vapor present to some extent with peracetic acid . Peracetic acid a nd hydrogen peroxide are chemically similar and so this hydrogen peroxide can p otentially cause interference on the sensor. T he ChemDAQ peracetic acid monitor includes a proprietary chemical filter that prevents cross sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide. Th e US - Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has also issued expo sure limits for peracetic acid ( and many other chemicals) known as acute exposure guideline level s (AEGLs). There are three levels of AEGL, roughly translated as irritating (AEGL 1), irreversib le harm (AEGL 2) , and fatal (AEGL 3) . 11 T he AEGL 1 for peracetic acid is 0.52 mg/m 3 (0.19 ppm). 12 It should be noted that the AEGLs are intended to give guidance to emergency responders and so apply to a single exposure, not repeated exposure as with an occu pational exposure limit. 10 ACGIH 2014 Guide to Occupational Exposure Values 11 http://www.epa.gov/oppt/aegl/pubs/define.htm 12 http://www.epa.gov/oppt/aegl/pubs/results80.htm The ACGIH recently announced a new TLV for pera cetic acid. Peracetic acid is widely used as a biocide in healthcare, food and other industries and until this announcement there were no occupational exposure limits for it. ChemDAQ developed the first monitor for peracetic acid vapor.

3. Copyright ChemDAQ Inc. (2014) Page 3 of 16 CM - 118 - C - 0.00 NIOSH IDLH Values and Odor Thresholds Compound NIOSH IDLH 3 Odor Threshold Ethylene Oxide 800 ppm 430 ppm 4 Hydrogen Peroxide 75 ppm Very Little smell, no odor threshold reported 5 Ozone 5 ppm 0.01 to 0.05 ppm 6 Odor thresholds are at best estimates since the odor threshold varies from person to person and for any given person from day to day, especially if they are congested with a cold or allergies. In addition, the odor of many gases such as ozone is subject to olfactory fatigue meaning that a once pungent odor fades into the perceptual background on continued exposure ; also meaning that slowly increasing concentrations may not be perceived. OSHA is the US regulatory and enforcement agency. It has promulgated a series of occupational exposure limits called permissible exposure limits (PELs). The OSHA PELs are the legal exposure limits throughout the US , th ough some states may have additional or tighter exposure limits. For example, Washington State 7 and Hawaii 8 both have 3 ppm short term exposure limits for hydrogen peroxide. OSHA PEL Values 9 Compound 8 Hr Exposure Limit (ppm) 15 Minutes Exposure Limit ( ppm) Ethylene Oxide 1 5 Hydrogen Peroxide 1 n/a Another important occupational safety organization is the American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). Each year the ACGIH publishes their list of Threshold Limit Values (TLV) for chem ical and biological exposures. The ACGIH is highly respected to the point that most of the OSHA PELs were taken from the 1968 ACGIH TLVs and several countries including some Canadian provinces directly reference the TLVs in their occupational exposure laws ( vide infra ). 3 http://www.cdc.gov/niosh /idlh/intridl4.html 4 http://www.epa.gov/ttn/uatw/hlthef/ethylene.html 5 http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/MHMI/mmg174.pdf 6 http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/81 - 123/pdfs/0476.pdf 7 http://ap ps.leg.wa.gov/wac/default.aspx?cite=296 - 841 - 20025 8 http://labor.hawaii.gov/hiosh/files/2012/12/12 - 60 - General - Safety - Health - Requirements.pdf , 9 29 CFR 1910.1000 Tbl . Z - 1 and 29 CFR 1910.1047 (EtO)

7. Copyright ChemDAQ Inc. (2014) Page 7 of 16 CM - 118 - C - 0.00 Jurisdiction Ethylene Oxide Hydrogen Peroxide Notes Nor thwest Territories (T) 10 / 50 1 / 2 * 1 / 2 1 / 2 * List 22 ; * Legis lation pending, List 23 Nova Scotia (P) 1 / - 1 / - ACGIH 24 Nunavut (T) 10 / 50 1 / 2 * 1 / 2 List 25 ; * Legis lation pending , List 26 Ontario (P): 1 / 10 1 / - List or ACGIH 27 Prince Edward Isla nd (P) 1 / - 1 / - ACGIH 28 Quebec (P) 1 / - 1 / - L ist 29 Saskatchewan (P) 1 / 2 1 / 2 L ist 30 Yukon (T) 50 / 75 1 / 2 L ist 31 Note: Regulations ar e always subject to change and s o the readers should verify that the above information is correct before relyin g on this information. 22 Safety Act Consolidation Of General Safety Regulations R .R.N.W.T. 1990,c.S - 1 (Current to: April 1, 2010); http://www.wcb.nt.ca/Documents/econsRRNWT1990cS - 1.pdf 23 §314, Volume 3, Northwest Territories , Final Revisions to the proposed Occupationa l Health and Safety Regulations. January 2012. http://www.wcb.nt.c a/YourWSCC/WhoWeAre/Documents/OHS%20Regs%20Digests%20Vol %203%20NWT.pdf 24 §2.1 Workplace Health and Safety Regulations made under Section 82 of the Occupational Health and Safety Act S.N.S. 1996, c. 7 O.I.C. 2013 - 65 (March 12, 2013, effective June 12, 2013 ), N.S. Reg. 52/2013http://www.novascotia.ca/just/regulations/regs/ohsworkplace.htm 25 Safety Act Consolidation Of General Safety Regulations R.R.N.W.T. 1990,c.S - 1 (Current to: April 1, 2010) ; http://www.wcb.nt.ca/Documents/econsRRNWT1990cS - 1.pdf 26 §314, Volume 3, Northwest Territories , Final Revisions to the proposed Occupationa l Health and Safety Regulations. January 2012. http://www.wcb.nt.ca/YourWSCC/WhoWeAre/Documents/OHS%20Regs%20Digest%20Vol %203%20NU.pdf 27 Control of Exposure to Biological or Chem ical Agents, RRO 1990, Reg 833 , last updated January 1, 2013 ; http://canlii.ca/en/on/laws/regu/rro - 1990 - reg - 833/102971/rro - 1990 - reg - 833.html 28 §45.17 Chapter O - 1 Occupational Health And Safety Act Regulations Pursuant to section 34 of the Occupational Health and Safety Act R.S.P.E.I. 1988, Cap. O - 1, last Updated January 31 st 2013; http://www.gov.pe.ca/law/regulations/pdf/O&1 - 01G.pdf 29 Regulation respecting occupational health and safety . An Act respecting occ upational health and safety (chapter S - 2.1, s. 223) Updated to 1 March 2014 http://www2.publicationsduquebec.gouv.qc.ca/dynamicSearch/telecharge.php?type=3&file=/S _2_1/S2_1R13_A.HTM 30 The Occupational Health and Safety Regulations, 1996 , Last updated N ov. 2012. http://www.qp.gov.sk.ca/documents/English/Regulations/Regulations/O1 - 1R1.pdf 31 Regulations for the Occupational Health And Safety Act May 2006; All OH&S Safety Regulations Along With The OH&S Act, available from http://www.wcb.yk.ca/Regulations/ LIB0136.aspx

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